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Trichloroisocyanuric Acid (TCCA) simulated water ecosystems

In continuation of our work to recommend new catalysts for organic syntheses, now Trichloroisocyanuric Acid (TCCA) as a highly efficient homogeneous catalyst for the preparation of 2-oxazolines, 2-imidazolines and 2-thiazolines from nitriles is presented. In order to find the optimum reaction conditions, benzonitrile was reacted with 2-aminoethanol in the presence of TCCA. The model reaction was performed using different molar ratios of substrates and catalyst, at various temperatures and in different polar and non-polar solvents. With the goal of performing the synthesis in the absence of solvent as a special advantage of the method, the model reaction was also investigated under 
solvent-free conditions. The best result was obtained in the reaction of benzonitrile (1 mmol), 2-aminoethanol (6 mmol) and TCCA (0.03 mmol) at 110 °C under solvent-free conditions (Table I, entry 1). Using these optimized conditions, a variety of aromatic and heteroaromatic nitriles were reacted with 2-aminoethanol and corresponding 2-oxazolines were generated in high yields.
Similarly, the model reaction of benzonitrile with ethylenediamine was performed in the presence of Trichloroisocyanuric Acid (TCCA) for optimization of 2-phenylimidazoline synthesis. After several experiments, 1:4:0.1 molar ratio of benzonitrile: ethylenediamine: catalyst at 110 °C in the absence of solvent was selected as the best reaction conditions. Subsequently, heterocyclization of a great variety of aromatic and heteroaromatic nitriles with ethylenediamine were performed to prepare the corresponding 2-imidazoline products.
The results showed that: after entering the Trichloroisocyanuric Acid (TCCA) simulated water ecosystems, in addition to hydrolysis, other aquatic organisms or absorbed, or settling into the sediment in aquatic organisms TCCA have different degrees of enrichment plants and residues than the absorption of TCCA. Especially blade section; River clams, fish for TCCA has significant uptake and accumulation, and a longer residence time in the body, significant differences exist in different tissues of the uptake and accumulation of TCCA, the accumulation in the gut is higher than muscle tissue, different organisms TCCA distribution and enrichment there is a big difference, the trend for the crown grass> River clams> gibel carp.